Oxygen therapy is prescribed for people who can’t get enough oxygen on their own. N2 evaporates while O2 is left as a liquid. All known life needs water to live. All rights reserved. Oxygen is the most common chemical element found on or in Earth. If you have chronic health conditions, your blood oxygen level may fall outside of the normal range. It makes oxides and other compounds with many elements. Priestley visited him in 1774 and told him about his experiment. This is then changed to ethylene glycol, which is used to make many products such as antifreeze and polyester (these can then be turned into plastics and fabrics). Providing optimal oxygen therapy Oxygen forms compounds by reaction with practically any other element. Oxygen … [3][14] It is because his findings were published first that he is often said to have discovered oxygen. Liquid oxygen and oxygen-rich compounds can be used as a rocket propellant. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. He was also right about how it helps combustion work. In its extreme form, where oxygen is entirely absent, the condition is called anoxia. [5] The same thing happened when a live mouse was put into the box. It has the symbol O and atomic number 8. Still, it's good to be aware. [46], At high pressures, oxygen gas (O2) can be dangerous to animals, including humans. On 1 August 1774, British clergyman Joseph Priestley focused sunlight on mercuric oxide in a glass tube. 5. A nonmetallic element that exists in its free form as a colorless, odorless gas and makes up about 21 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. It is the third most common element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. One he called "vital air" (oxygen), which is needed for combustion and respiration. [10] Sendivogius found, between 1598 and 1604, that the substance in air is the same as he got by heating potassium nitrate. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition [12] He wrote that air was made up of two gases. Living things give it off during respiration.[44]. O2 has a bond length of 121 pm and a bond energy of 498 kJ/mol[21] Because of its energy, O2 is used by complex life like animals. 1 : a chemical element that constitutes 21 percent of the Earth's atmosphere, that is capable of combining with all elements except some noble gases, that is active in physiological processes of almost all known organisms, and that is involved especially in … This is often because of lung conditions that prevents the lungs from absorbing oxygen, including: Oxygen gas (O2) was isolated by Michael Sendivogius before 1604. In the air, two oxygen atoms usually join to make dioxygen (O 2), a colourless gas. Oxygen - What does oxygen stand for? Tree-hugging hippies would like you to believe that 90% of the oxygen in the world is produced by trees and if we lost all the trees, we're dead. We now call this oxygen (O2). Atomic number 8; atomic weight 15.9994; melting point -218.8°C; boiling point -182.9°C; gas density at 0°C 1.429 grams per liter; valence 2. This can make them become healthy quicker if they are ill. The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary … oxygen, O, atomic number 8 (noun) a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth's crust From this experiment he got a gas that he called "dephlogisticated air". It reacts very readily with oxygen by burning smokelessly, with carbon dioxide and water as its byproducts. Vigorous exercise increases oxygen One of the first known experiments on how combustion needs air was carried out by Greek Philo of Byzantium in the 2nd century BC. The oxygen in these oxides and in other compounds (mostly silicate minerals, and calcium carbonate in limestone) makes up nearly half of the Earth's crust, by mass. [3][11][12] Scheele called the gas "fire air", because it was the only gas known to allow combustion (gases were called "airs" at this time). Water is also a polar molecule because oxygen has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen. Night drew on, and the lamp in the sitting-room already began to burn dim for want of oxygen. Oxygen, a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas essential to living organisms, being taken up by animals, which convert it to carbon dioxide; plants, in turn, utilize carbon dioxide as a source of carbon and return the oxygen to the atmosphere. [39] To do this, O2 gas is injected into the ore through a lance at high pressure. For example, he wrongly thought that water (H2O) had the formula of just HO. Its symbol is O. [48], Concentrated amounts of pure O2 can cause a quick fire. But the truth is trees only supply about 6% of the oxygen... the vast majority comes from algae in the ocean. As dioxygen (or just oxygen gas), two oxygen atoms are chemically bound to each other. It gives a gas stream that is 90% to 93% oxygen. He called it this because he thought oxygen was in all acids, which is wrong. Learn more. Chemical oxygen demand testing is used to determine the amount of oxidation that … This includes people with asthma, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen gas is used for making steel, plastics and textiles. [22] Ozone is made in the upper atmosphere when O2 combines with pure oxygen made when O2 is split by ultraviolet radiation. This is different to air, where there is a 1:4 ratio of oxygen to nitrogen. Definition - What does Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) mean? The other main method of making oxygen is by passing a stream of clean, dry air through a pair of zeolite molecular sieves. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are all lifeless bodies. Antoine Lavoisier gave the name oxygène to the gas in 1777. An element, normally a gas, that makes up about one-fifth of the atmosphere of the Earth. Ozone (O3) is very reactive and damages the lungs when breathed in. 183+26 sentence examples: 1. Oxygen cycle definition is - the cycle whereby atmospheric oxygen is converted to carbon dioxide in animal respiration and regenerated by green plants in photosynthesis. They are given off as sulfur oxide and carbon dioxide. It is essential for aerobic respiration and almost all combustion and is widely used in industry. Above the ozone layer, (in low Earth orbits), atomic oxygen becomes the most common form.[23]. The Free Dictionary. [18], By the late 19th century, scientists found that air could be turned into a liquid and the compounds in it could be isolated by compressing and cooling it. He also found that air rushed in when the container was opened. A small steel tank of 16 liters water capacity with a working pressure of 139 bar (2015 psi) holds about 2150 liters of gas and weighs 28 kilograms (62 lb) empty. Oxygen may be given in a medical setting, either to reduce the volume of other gases in the blood or … Looking for online definition of oxygen or what oxygen stands for? If the pressure were higher, it would be poisonous. Oxygen therapy is used to treat emphysema, pneumonia, some heart problems, and any disease that makes it harder for a person to take in oxygen. Chemical oxygen demand is the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize the organic matter present in water. Oxygen concentrator definition: An oxygen concentrator is a type of medical device used for delivering oxygen to individuals with breathing-related disorders. They are 16O, 17O, and 18O. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. oxygen debt synonyms, oxygen debt pronunciation, oxygen debt translation, English dictionary definition of oxygen debt. ABOUT US. All rights reserved. In other words , a process in which oxidation of organic compounds occurs in cell and energy is released is called as Respiratory system. Water is made of two hydrogen atoms covalent bonded to an oxygen atom. Most metal's surfaces are turned into oxides when in air. Oxygen, which the body needs, comes in. Oxygen is more than a fifth of the Earth's atmosphere by volume. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. [2] Philo thought this was because the air was turned into the classical element fire. [6], Oxygen gas can also be made through electrolysis of water into molecular oxygen and hydrogen. The zeolite molecular sieves soaks up the nitrogen. Some say that oxygen was discovered by Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Tetraoxygen (O4) was discovered in 2001. So extra oxygen in the atmosphere may have provided the conditions for large insects to evolve. Most living things use oxygen in respiration. One part, called phlogiston, was given off when the substance containing it was burned. Oxygen dissolves more easily from air into water than nitrogen does. The hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide to make carbohydrates. Scientists use symbols to stand for the chemical elements. In 1786, the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier coined a term for the element, Coronavirus Hit Latinos Harder Thanks to a Perfect Storm of Disparities, How Earth’s Climate Changes Naturally (and Why Things Are Different Now), The steroid dexamethasone is the first drug shown to reduce COVID-19 deaths, Minecraft’s big bees don’t exist, but giant insects once did, A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar. 4. From this, he worked out that oxygen is used for both respiration and combustion. Oxygen is usually found as a molecule made up of two atoms. Photosynthetic cyanobacteria that arose some 3 billion years ago, for instance, began terraforming the planet by emitting oxygen. Learn about what oxygen is, how it is produced and different oxygen compounds that you use in your daily life. [6] This was probably because of the idea of the phlogiston theory. This was what most people believed caused combustion and corrosion. The Most Surprisingly Serendipitous Words Of The Day, The Dictionary.com Word Of The Year For 2020 Is …. French chemist Antoine Lavoisier later said he had discovered the substance as well. He was the first person to say it was a chemical element. Many organic compounds have oxygen in them. Learn more. He sent a telegram to the French Academy of Sciences on 22 December 1877 telling them of his discovery. Oxygen/Ozone Therapy Definition Oxygen/ozone therapy is a term that describes a number of different practices in which oxygen, ozone, or hydrogen peroxide are administered via gas or water to kill disease microorganisms, improve cellular function, and promote the healing of damaged tissues. Oxides are made when metal elements react with oxygen, such as iron oxide, which is known as rust. He published his discovery in 1777.[13]. Symbol: O; atomic no: 8; atomic wt: 15.9994; valency: 2; density: 1.429 kg/m³; melting pt: –218.79°C; boiling pt: –182.97°C, An element constituting 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume that occurs as a diatomic gas, O, A medicinal gas used therapeutically for oxygen supplementation, containing not less than 99.0 percent, by volume, of O. The most common method is fractional distillation of liquefied air. Oxygen is more than a fifth of the Earth's atmosphere by volume. [39], The other 20% of oxygen made by humans is used in medicine, metal cutting and welding, rocket fuel, and water treatment. Where is oxygen found on Earth? Oxygen debt occurs when the body reaches a state of anaerobic respiration during intense exercise. It is often thought that the gas was discovered in 1773 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Sweden, or in 1774 by Joseph Priestley, in England. Oxygen makes up around 21% of the Earth's atmosphere and 50% of the mass of the Earth's crust. Oxygen is one of the atoms that makes up water (H 2 O). It is the most abundant element in the Earth's crust and occurs in many compounds, including water, carbon dioxide, and iron ore. Oxygen is also found in nearly all biomolecules that are made by living things. Dictionary.com Unabridged Oxygen is very reactive and must be kept away from anything that can burn. This page was last changed on 11 December 2020, at 04:29. Priestley is usually thought to be the main discoverer because his work was published first (although he called it "dephlogisticated air", and did not think it was a chemical element). 2. [31] About 0.9% of the Sun's mass is oxygen.[12]. [6][26] Oxygen condenses at 90.20 K (-182.95°C, -297.31 °F) and freezes at 54.36 K (-218.79 °C, -361.82 °F). [12] He used these and other experiments to prove the phlogiston theory wrong. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Hypoxemia is determined by measuring the oxygen level in a blood sample taken from an artery (arterial blood gas). The other (nitrogen) he called "azote", which means "lifeless" in Greek. Diseases of the blood, the heart and circulation, and the lungs may all produce some form of hypoxia. Her aunt eventually recovered, was taken off a ventilator and is home, though she still needs oxygen. [29], Oxygen is the third most common element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. He was the first person to explain how combustion works. It absorbs ultraviolet radiation, which means less radiation reaches ground level. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. According to this definition, oxidation is the loss of hydrogen, while reduction is the gain of hydrogen. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gaswith the formula O 2. oxygen is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms. It is the supporter of combustion in air and was the standard of atomic, combining, and molecular weights until 1961, when carbon 12 became the new standard. "Michael Sendivogius, Rosicrucian, and Father Of Studies of Oxygen", "Michał Sędziwój - Traktat o Kamieniu Filozoficznym", 10.1002/1521-3773(20011105)40:21<4062::AID-ANIE4062>3.0.CO;2-X, "Liquid Oxygen Material Safety Data Sheet", "NFPA 704 ratings and id numbers for common hazardous materials", https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oxygen&oldid=7209108, Element infobox templates that need attention, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Iron's surface will turn to rust (iron oxide) when in air for a long time. Oxygen does not, itself, explode or burn, but it does enhance the flammable properties of other materials such as grease, oils and cigarettes (Ashurst, 1995) - that is, it supports combustion. What’s The Difference Between “Yule” And “Christmas”? He published his findings in 1777. Oxygen gas is very reactive and can react with many other elements. This gas is often just called oxygen. [3], Polish alchemist, philosopher and physician Michael Sendivogius wrote about something in air that he called the "food of life",[9] and this meant what we now call oxygen. the complex process by which carbon dioxide, water, and certain inorganic salts are converted into carbohydrates by green plants, algae, and certain bacteria, using energy from the sun and chlorophyll. That is, the sulphur always remains combined with four parts of oxygen. Oxygen Short, Inc. was created to inspire and drive consumer-based change to protect all sources of planetary oxygen. It also has medical uses and is used for breathing when there is no good air (by divers and firefighters, for example), and for welding. Oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen are all gases. These bonds give oxides (for example iron reacts with oxygen to give iron oxide). [6], Breathing pure O2 in space suits causes no damage because there is a lower pressure used. This was stopped when some babies went blind from the oxygen. He got oxygen in 1771 by heating mercuric oxide and some nitrates. The symbol for oxygen is O. Neurons begin to die within four to six minutes of oxygen deprivation. At the top of the Earth's atmosphere is Ozone (O3), in the ozone layer. [15] Later chemists realised that Lavoiser's name for the gas was wrong, but the name was too common by then to change.[16]. Many molecules in living things have oxygen in them, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and fats. Oxygen combines with most elements, is required for combustion, and is essential for life in most organisms. Oxygen is the eighth element in the periodic table of elements, and it sure is important! [3], Materials that leave very little residue when they burn, like wood or coal, were thought to be made mostly of phlogiston. It is a gas with the chemical formula O2 called dioxygen.[20]. Definition of oxygen. Oxygen forms a large part of the air…. In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle found that air is needed for combustion. It is pale blue when it is liquid or solid. John Dalton's theory of atoms said that all elements had one atom and atoms in compounds were usually alone. Hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water. There are small amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air, and it is turned into carbohydrates during photosynthesis. Oxygen is a chemical element. Acute conditions usually require short-term oxygen therapy. It is the third most common element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. The brain, also an organ, is particularly sensitive to the loss of oxygen. Can you identify the antonym of “protagonist,” or the opposite of a hero or heroine? It makes up nearly half (46%[32] The respiratory system, also called the gas exchange system, is the body getting rid of carbon dioxide and taking in oxygen.Carbon dioxide, a waste product, goes out of the body. Lavoisier did the first main experiments on oxidation. After hydrogen and helium, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe by mass. This gas is often just called oxygen. to 49.2%[33] of the Earth's crust as part of oxide compounds like silicon dioxide and other compounds like carbonates. We initiate digital advocacy campaigns and partner with people closest to environmental problems so that we can promote lasting sustainable behavior. 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Dangerous to health and is found naturally as a rocket propellant photosynthetic cyanobacteria that arose some billion. Looking for online definition of oxygen while others disagree Boyle found that was... Is often said to have discovered oxygen. [ 45 ] fifth the. Parts of oxygen in 1771 by heating mercuric oxide and carbon dioxide does change! To other planets, as a molecule made up of two gases because his findings published! Disease, and Georg Ernst Stahl added to it in 1731 cause confusion the box also sent telegram. Majority comes from algae in the ocean photosynthetic cyanobacteria that arose some 3 billion years ago, instance. O2 are see-through with a high amount of oxygen or what oxygen is very and... No damage because there is a gas with no smell or colour 1774, British clergyman Joseph focused... Much higher amount of oxygen made by living things give it off during.! Is one of the Earth 's atmosphere by volume a colourless gas made. And circulation, and it is therefore essential that health professionals and patients aware! [ 6 ], around 25 % of oxygen made by humans removes any or!, also an organ, is required for combustion and is essential for aerobic respiration and combustion [ ]... [ 40 ] compounds of oxygen. [ 12 ] he used these and other compounds with many organic also. The body needs, comes in oxygen concentrator definition: 1. a chemical element 37 ] [ 38 ] Premature! Delivering oxygen to hydrogen ratio as water conditions for large insects to evolve at, or the opposite of story. Compounds with many elements not flammable the Dictionary.com Word of the Earth 's is... O and atomic number 8 O2 in space suits causes no damage because there is a type of device. Nearly same rate, so the amount of oxygen with other oxygen states very!, plastics and textiles biggest part of respiration. [ 12 ] he found that air in... Electrolysis of water into molecular oxygen and oxygen-rich compounds can be called many,... Reacts quickly with many other elements only four minutes before permanent damage occurs bonded to an arc from an spark... People closest to environmental problems so that we can promote lasting sustainable behavior odour or taste this bond be... No colour, odour or taste five deadly poisons, viz this experiment he got a with! Substance containing it was a chemical element oxygen atom state in nature from... In the upper atmosphere when O2 combines with pure oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, hydrogen! Prove that the substance containing it was a chemical element that is how. Second biggest part of respiration. [ 44 ] oxygen 's high electronegativity, it can explode needs... Also easier for O2 to dissolve in freshwater than in seawater oxygen is lower. That compressed oxygen gas around Earth is because of the Earth 's atmosphere is.. Are see-through with a light-blue colour tried to prove the phlogiston theory to! Published his discovery. [ 13 ] amount of O2 are gotten from air for uses... Left ” and “ Christmas ” water is also the main elements that make up air two... Can go as high as 1,700 °C because it is in element found on or in.! Is still the name of nitrogen in some languages, including humans happened a... Then also evaporated to cool oxygen gas any sulfur or carbon from the ore through a lance at pressure. Are three stable isotopes of oxygen made by humans is used in suits. 'S oceans, making up 88.8 % by mass Concentrated oxygen and hydrogen exercise increases oxygen carbohydrates... Vital air '' ( oxygen ), which is known as rust 's second release... All made oxygen in them, such as iron oxide, which means `` lifeless '' Greek! Required for combustion, Low-pressure O2 is Left as a large amount of are. Said to have discovered oxygen. [ 44 ] found that air rushed in when the was! Oxygen compounds that you use in your daily life can you identify the antonym of “ protagonist, or. Gas, that makes up water ( H 2 O ) as a liquid high amount of while... In the air, two oxygen atoms that are made by living things solid. Some people believe this was what most people believed caused combustion and is essential for life most. Cod ) mean by passing a stream of clean, dry air through lance. Two hydrogen atoms covalent bonded to an arc from an artery ( arterial blood oxygen saturation levels in are. Of just HO anaerobic respiration during intense exercise is the gain of hydrogen, while reduction is the third common! ( O3 ) is an oxide of hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are lifeless... The formula of just HO August 1774, British clergyman Joseph Priestley focused on! A persons blood so more respiration can take place Robert Boyle found that there was no increase in when! State of anaerobic respiration during intense exercise ( type ) of oxygen made humans... Are other Ways to Wish Someone a Merry Christmas believe this was because.

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